even after their diet improves. This is because the sugar diet leads to long-term reprogramming of gene expression.
The gene is also important for humans, so the findings may have broad implications for us.
The research team fed a healthy diet containing 5% sugar to one group and the other group was given 40% sugar. After three weeks both groups of flies ate healthy food. Flies live about 90 days, and they ate sugar for 23% of their life. This corresponds to approximately 17 years of our human life.
Even after healthy diet, the flies with a high-sugar diet started to die earlier average had 7% it means 5 human years.
Maybe now the question rise: is it better live longer or more pleasure?
In 2008, a psychologist analyzed all the test data on drugs used for curing depression. He concluded that the extra benefit of the drug versus the placebo was not meaningful. He said this was for those with mild to moderate depression.
Kirsch I1, Deacon BJ, „Initial severity and antidepressant benefits: a meta-analysis of data submitted to the Food and Drug Administration.”; PLoS Med. 2008 Feb;5(2):e45. doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.0050045.
It also helps to cope with the negative assessment of our person or presented contents.
Students were divided into three groups during the experiment. The first group was asked to read some text preceded by information that the material may be incomprehensible. The second group received this same information after reading it, while the third group of respondents read the text without any extra information.
The students in the first group said that the text was quite understandable. At the same time, the two other groups revealed that the fragment was not suitable for reading.
During the interview, the employers held either a hard piece of wood or a soft blanket. It turned out that the employers from the first group estimated him as more relentless and firm compared to the soft blanket group during the interview.
There were no differences in women.
Ackerman JM, Nocera CC, & Bargh JA (2010). Incidental haptic sensations influence social judgments and decisions. Science (New York, N.Y.), 328 (5986), 1712-5 PMID: 20576894
Researchers studied who did tasks such as making the shopping list for Christmas, or preparing for a date or a meal.
Research has shown that sharing the smaller steps of a project allows you to get the full task or project done faster.
The participants were willing to pay more for a pleasant experience than simply avoiding an unpleasant time. The subjects most valued an hour of love (about 120USD) than happiness and sadness.
To avoid an hour of disgust, which ranked in last place, the respondents said they would pay an average of 55USD.
The effect of the valuation of emotions depends on a person’s culture. The British would pay the most for happiness, joy and peace, while the Japanese are willing to pay more for avoiding grief, shame, and frustration.
Scientists believe that avoiding a negative experience is more important for a person’s well-being than having a positive experience.
They share the attitudes of the Japanese people, who focus primarily on social expectations, and not on their own personal welfare.
Lau, H., White, M., and Schnall, S. (2012). Quantifying the Value of Emotions Using a Willingness to Pay Approach. Journal of Happiness Studies , Volume 14, Issue 5, pp 1543–1561
It turns out that the elderly and the sick often receive lesser sentences for crimes because judges believe that this group does not present a big risk to the public.
They are less likely to commit a crime again. What more, judgment may affect them more than the young.
Analysis of the results revealed that, on average, they were condemned to 5-6 months less jail time than the young.
Mueller-Johnson, Katrin U., and Mandeep K. Dhami. „Effects of Offenders’ Age and Health on Sentencing Decisions.” Journal of Social Psychology 150, no. 1 (February 2010): 77-97.
One group of children watched an adult model physical and verbal aggressive behavior. The second group watched a “peaceful” model. And a third group didn’t watch anybody. The study found that children in the „aggressive” group often imitated aggressiveness when they played with a doll, more so than the other groups.
The aggressive behavior of an adult had a greater impact on boys than girls.